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City of Zagreb
City Office for Physical Planning, Construction, Communal Affairs and Traffic


Faculty of Architecture
University of Zagreb


City Acupuncture


Oris - House of Architecture




City of Zagreb
City Office for Culture, Education and Sport


Republic of Croatia
Ministry of Culture


Hong Kong, 1982
Description of The Project

"The winning architect describes her design as Suprematist Geology. First, she proposes that the ground be leveled to the site's lowest point and then rebuilt from the excavated rock as a polished granite mountain. The building itself is composed of four beams , stacked atop one another in a splayed arrangement. Partially embeded, the two lowest layers contain 15 studio units and 20 apartments, forming a podium for the club facilities. A void approximately 42 feet high separates these strata from the two uppermost levels, which house the larger apartments and the developer's penthouse. Suspended within the void like hovering spaceships are the club elements,  which extend back into the man-made mountain. The series of floating ramps and platforms that articulate this space are supported by two vertical members, an elevator, and a steel truss containing services. Two elevators linking the clubs to the upper residential zone provide additional support and a vertical counterpoint to the horizontal composition. Stress cables stabilize any other movement among the floating horizontal members of the void. The swimming pool rests in the roof of the second residential layer. Lateral changing rooms are hollow square beams in section, and act to stiffen the structure. The enire complex is constructed of steel and reinforced concrete. All volumes suspended in the club area are framed in lightweight alloys with aluminum or stone cladding. Although the jurors faulted the winning design for a ''certain lack of resolution in its details,'' they praised its concentration ''on the exploration'' of ideas... The sculptural nature of this solution,'' they averred ''promises to extend the imagination and symbolize the essence of a new building type in a unique location.''
*excerpt from Architectural Record, Sept 1983

Image Courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects


'At a time of highly referenced thinking often reaching back into antiquity, it has as its referencethe 1920 supremacist philosophy and streches the imagination well beyond normal bounds ' is how the jury for the international Hong Kong Peak competition describe the first prize-winning scheme by Zaha Hadid. Attracting over 500 entries, the object of this single-stage competition was to provide a gentleman's club and meeting place on a prominent 6100 m² site in a 'development of considerable luxury... an oustanding example of architectural achievement... and a visible landmark.' Hadid, who practicies and teaches in London , is to receive 100 000 US $ in prize money for her design, which she describes as 'a horizontal skyscraper' portending 'a new kind of modernism'. She hopes building work will go ahead as soon as possible. Sponsored jointly by the International Union of Architects and the Hong Kong Institute of Architects, and promoted by OLS Holdings Ltd, the competition was judged by a panel chaired by John Andrews from Australia. Barrington Charles Marshall of Melbourne won the 60 000 US $ second prize. Joint third prize of 40 000 US $ will be divided between Edmund Baylon Burke from Dublin and John S. Hagmann with David H. Mitchell from the US. of steel and reinforced concrete. All volumes suspended in the club area are framed in lightweight alloys with aluminum or stone cladding. Although the jurors faulted the winning design for a ''certain lack of resolution in its details,'' they praised its concentration ''on the exploration'' of ideas... The sculptural nature of this solution,'' they averred ''promises to extend the imagination and symbolize the essence of a new building type in a unique location.''
*excerpt from Architects' Journal, March 30, 1983

Image Courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects

Hong Kong Panorama from the original brief Courtesy of Union Internationale des Architectes (UIA) and Hong Kong Institute of Architects (HKIA)

Competition details extract


2.0 Mandatory drawings

2.1 Site Plan
Scale 1:500 showing general disposition, access and relationship of the proposed buildings with immediate surroundings. An indication of general landscaping concepts should be included.

2.2 General Plans
Scale 1:200 showing general functioning of building at all levels giving an indication of furniture layouts and also of materials/finishes and planting. 

2.3 Explanatory Sections & Sectional Elevations 
Scale 1:200 showing general treatment with indications of materials/finishes and planting.

2.4 Elevational Detail & Elements which the competitor wishes to explain:
Scales of 1:50 or 1:25 as suitable showing part layouts. Conceptual structural principles and explanatory diagrams showing the integration of services should be included.

2.5 Axonometric or Perspective explanations to indicate the three-dimensional organisation of space and volume, both interior and exterior. Photographic prints of simple plane or block models may be incorporated in the layout of the sheet.

3.0 Presentation
Generally presentation should be in black and white using a combination of line and mechanical tint chosen for ease of reproduction. A simplicity of presentation possessing graphic legibility is requested.

4.0 Report
An extended A3 report (297 x 525.5 mm) should accompany the submission of drawings. The report may be using any technique of presentation including colour and should contain an explanation of the concept of the proposal and such technical details as the competitor wishes to outline in connexion with development volume, structure or services. It should contain illustrative perspectives of the proposed interiors, their colour schemes and schedules giving sufficient outline information for an independent quantity surveyor to prepare an outline budget costing. (Including a schedule of areas of each plan level and a computation of building volumes). The report should be kept as brief as possible and should not exceed 12 pages.


A. Architecture

1.0 Aesthetics

1.1 The sponsors of the Peak competition whish to create an architectural landmark which will provide an example of quality and dignity. 

1.2 The compatibility of the solution with the very strong natural environment, the sensitivity of the relationship of the skyline and the proposed building form, materials and colours both from Mid- Levels and the centre of the City is important.

4.0 Fengshui
The ‘Fengshui’ of the site is excellent as is evident from the Geomancer’s report attached as Appendix 3. Note should be taken of the importance of ‘’water’’. 

B. The sites

1.0 Particulars of the sites
The sites are divided both physically and in terms of availability. 

C. Design brief
1.0 The Promoters seek to build an extremely luxurious residential club which will take advantage of the dramatic and extremely visible site on Victoria Peak.




Zaha Hadid, founder of Zaha Hadid Architects, was awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize (considered to be the Nobel Prize of architecture) in 2004 and is internationally known for her built, theoretical and academic work. Each of her dynamic and innovative projects builds on over thirty years of revolutionary exploration and research in the interrelated fields of urbanism, architecture and design.

Working with senior office partner Patrik Schumacher, Hadid's interest lies in the rigorous interface between architecture, landscape, and geology as her practice integrates natural topography and human-made systems, leading to experimentation with cutting-edge technologies. Such a process often results in unexpected and dynamic architectural forms.

Zaha Hadid Architects continues to be a global leader in pioneering research and design investigation. Collaborations with corporations that lead their industries have advanced the practice’s diversity and knowledge, whilst the implementation of state-of-the-art technologies have aided the realization of fluid, dynamic and therefore complex architectural structures.


Work title: Peak Eye

Juror's comment

grade 5 cool, compelling


Peak_eye a journey in a gourmet capsule In respect to the brief, this proposal for the peak - "eye" is first of all breaking the rules. To achieve the aesthetic of a conceptual and contemporary solution, the project questions the given boundaries of the peak competition from 1982. The peak - eye is a reflection of Hongkong''s city character. All the residential parts are integrated in an hybrid tower complex to interweave with programs more open for the public. The project provides all programs decribed in the brief, introducing a new one. A moving gourmet restaurant, that should combine qualities of high class cuisine from east and west. The guests of this restaurant are not only enjoying culinary specialities, they also experience Hongkong in an totally unique way. The guests are enjoying a four hours journey through a state of the art cuisine celebrating Hongkong''s skyline. ” The cuisine makes up twenty percent of the restaurant, the rest is atmosphere ” - Paul Bocuse 

Work title: RECURS(H)IVE II

Juror's comment
The project Recurs(h)ive II takes advantage of the extraordinary natural surrounding to saturate the site with a highly dynamic structure. The building stretches over the site boundaries adapting its geometry to the topography of the Peak to expose the dwellings to the breathtaking views. The articulation of the proposal is based on an adaptive hexagonal structure that forms a dense settlement within the site boundaries. The hexagons profilefate on three levels following the topographic contour of the peak. Each unit is formed by a supporting column providing vertical support to the articulation of the floor slabs and the roof. These tree-like columns are also providing the development with all the necessary mechanical and electric services. These vertical supports allow for the freeing of the ground level of the building where a communal landscape area, parking and outdoor leisure facilities are located. Above the ground floor, the second and the third level of the residential units stand on communal plateaus which serve the different units while providing terracing and connection between the different parts of the site. This spatial organizational strategy allow for an array of spatial conditions that start from the intimate private unit, to outdoor private balconies; from communal plateau to the semi-public ground floor, all the way to the use of outdoor landscaping facilities. The user is encouraged to navigate through these constantly changing conditions and playfully re-configure his/her path to interact with the fluid structure.

Work title: Peak on Peak

Juror's comment
cool but too abstract
This is a competition about a competition. It is therefore necessary to address Zaha directly. We don’t care about the program description. We care about Zaha’s representation of the program. We don’t care about the site. We care about Zaha’s representation of the site. And we couldn’t care less about Feng Shui. We care about form. Her “man made polished granite mountain” is the new starting point for our site. Its program is a mode of representation through abstraction. We look to Malevich’s early compositions to respond to the Suprematist Geology of architectons. Our proposal is a pyramid with an off-square base. Following White on White, it is rotated in the site to produce a new boundary. The pyramid is subdivided and reconstructed along several grid divisions: four square orthogonal, four square diagonal, nine square orthogonal, and nine square diagonal.We further zoom in on the four square diagonal composition. Four elevations are projected against each other to produce the new Peak. The mountain becomes a monument. Leisure Club occupies one quadrant, between the mountain and its new cap in the gaps between the real and the abstract.

Work title: Construction of situations

Juror's comment
very simple
Trying to escape the restrictions of an architectonic language in our proposal and reflecting on the revisiting of the original competition we refer to some ideas of Jaques Derrida: “Each element functions and takes on or conveys meaning only by referring to another past of future element in an economy of traces. The flow from one void to the other, delineated through text and space, thus becomes this economy of traces through which the meaning of the retrospective is reconstructed.” This project is about relations and juxtapositions between different scales and layers, private and public space, family and social space, cultural and useful space, leisure and work space. Our concern is not so much the built space, it is the negative space, the interstitions that happen on different levels, where social interactions will happen. Using Hong Kong’s irregular urban grid as an inspiration in our proposal, the program is spread on different levels and throughout the whole site. The horizontal programatic bars are connected by sloping volumes that house some of the club and leisure elements.


Yokohama, 1994
Juror's Description of The Project

The Yokohama project was the origin of my practice. And the opportunity to crystallise a type of investigation that I believe involved a whole generation of architects, and to test it with reality. The hybridisation of infrastructure, landscape and architecture, the integration of computer-aided design into the practice of architecture, and maybe the exploration of a global practice were tested through this project into a real building. And of course, it was a huge personal experience.
by Alejandro Zaera-Polo

Photo by Ramon Prat

Image Courtesy of FOA


Original Competition Details Extract, City of Yokohama, May, 1994

'Yokohama International Port Terminal is a very important institution for the international friendship to give the passengers the first impression of Japan. In addition, it is a usual amenity spot for the citizen as a port of their waterfront. In order to make these situations clear, the concept '' Niwaminato'' has been set up for the institution. ''Niwaminato'' consists of two different meanings for the passengers who visit Japan through Yokohama and its citizens. That is to say, the passengers visit Yokohama from the sea enjoying the scenery of the port like a garden. The view of the grand pier from the sea makes their expectation of landing much higher. And they can enjoy the sense of travel different from that of the airports through the intimate space of the Osanbashi pier. ''Niwaminato'' values the first impression which sways the image of the country. On the other hand, the citizens of Yokohama are proud of the international port in Yokohama. And moreover its waterfront is a usual amenity place for them. They also enjoy ''Niwaminato'' at the different point from the passengers'. ''Niwaminato'' consists of these different meanings. Hereafter only the image for the port can never work well. ‘’Niwaminato’’, which will create the future, is made up of the series of different factors influenced each other.'

Image Courtesy of Yokohama Port and Harbor Bureau



Alejandro Zaera-Polo is an architect, theorist, lecturer and founder of London and Barcelona-based Alejandro Zaera-Polo Architecture  (AZPA).  Together with Farshid Moussavi he founded in London Foreign Office Architects in 1995. Following FOA's demerger, he started AZPA in May 2011. Alejandro Zaera Polo’s practice has produced critically acclaimed and award winning projects for the public and private sector on an international scale. He favours a pragmatic approach, embracing technical rigor in a search towards a complex and organic architecture which unfolds through a broad variety of locations and typologies. Besides his architectural work Alejandro Zaera Polo occupies currently the Berlage Chair in the Technical University of Delft, the Netherlands. Prior to this current role at the TU in Delft, he has been for four years the Dean of the Berlage Institute in Rotterdam, until 2005. Previously he has been also Unit Master at the Architectural Association School of Architecture, and a Visiting Professor at the University of California in LA, Columbia University in New York, Princeton University, the School of Architecture in Madrid and the Yokohama School of architecture where he currently has an advisory role. He has also been an advisor to several committees, such as the Quality Commission for Architecture in Barcelona City and the advisory Committee for Urban Development of the City of Madrid and is a member of the Urban Age Think Tank of the London School of Economics. Has published extensively as a critic in professional magazines worldwide. El Croquis, Quaderns, A+U, Arch+, Harvard Design Magazine amongst them, and contributed to numerous publications, such as The Endless City curated by Ricky Burdett and Dejan Sudjic.


Work title: Upon Arrival: Mediating Cultural Connections through an Adaptation of Japanese Gardens

Juror's comment

Good approach to the port flows, generating an attractive public space for the city. Formal strategies are weak


Design Strategy Terminal programs often lack connections to the sense of place within which they exist. To counteract this, we chose to strengthen the association of the terminal as an introductory vehicle for Japanese society. In order to link the pier to critical aspects of its cultural context, the proposal draws from strategic and tactical relationships set forth by Japanese Gardens. The initial move was to place an entry path from the city to the terminal level. This path acts as the primary facilitator for the expedient flow of visitors and passengers to and from the port terminal while integrating major social spaces along its length. In the interest of participating in the dramatic nature of the horizon, we maintained the given flat expanse of pier. We selected a few strategic points for which to shift the section: the gallery, the rooftop restaurant, the foyer, and the sloped roof garden. These areas begin to more aggressively interact with multiple levels, allowing for unexpected visual and spatial confrontations. Said zones also serve to emphasize relationships between the city and port, its citizens and travelers, expansive spaces and isolated enclosures, as well as interior and exterior conditions. Lowered in section and set back from the terminalʼs front edge, the gallery indicates its presence to visitors while simultaneously acting as a volumetric threshold for travelers and visitors alike. Several garden zones are embedded within the project that mediate between user groups and programmatic needs. These dispersed gardens range in scale from large public gathering spaces to those more suited for a single individual. Derived from techniques found in Japanese gardens, a layering of secondary and alternate circulation routes accompany the main entry path. The separation of vehicular and pedestrian access, as well as the slippage of terminal spaces beneath visitor zones, allow for different user groups to reach their respective destinations. Ramps connect the parking area, court garden, visitorʼs deck, and the C.I.Q. for direct access by passengers. In order to further integrate the aforementioned social spaces which shift in section, elevator access is provided to the foyer, salon, departure hall and gallery. Additionally, two ceremonial stairs link the parking, terminal, and visitor levels at either end of the port. The Gardens: From Public Space to Private Sanctuary Within the project, a number of Japanese garden types were selected and reconceptualized to become architectural elements. They demarcate thresholds between water and land, the pier and the city, circulation paths, and significant programmatic shifts. Included in the design are the following: an entry ramp with stepped garden terraces, a court garden with a moss wall, a rock garden, a gridded plot roof garden, a sloped park that faces the bay, and a water garden with stepping stones. While these gardens are, in fact, singular and unique entities within the design, one could also interpret the entire project as a Shinden strolling garden in which the visitor is led through a variety of interconnected garden spaces both physically and visually.

Work title: Yokohama Terminal: enabling for the living

Juror's comment
Interesting to see a replica in concrete. proves that the original concept is driven once a technology populates the diagram.
A paranoid reading of urban needs and actions of the Yokohama citizens.


Juror's comment
Potentially interesting formal strategy applied with not suffiient rigor.
STRATEGY 1/The aim is to generate an efficient labyrinth of complex interrelations, organic tensions of intersecting nature. 2/Instead of making a custom-made masterpiece(one of a kind) we are proposing a reversible programmatic carpet: an efficient, reversible structure which will meet all possible spatial, social, economical demands of today’s tasks and tasks which can occur during the time of the building’s use: in the future the whole building or its parts can be reprogrammed according to the functions needed at the time: reversibility/flexibility/multitasking. For instance, today’s terminal could become tomorrow’s parking, shopping mall, office building, residential building, convention hall,city hall… It has to have the ability to CROSSDRESS! 3/Instead of reinventing new landscapes: we aim to interpret the existing ones. 4/Instead of seeking conceptual emancipation: the aim is to communicate with history. 5/The aim is to achieve complexity through repetition, repeating a series of ever the same, simple element: 5-percent sloped surface. Using always the same reversible, modular, hence cheap, element in different tasks might result in a complexity of a labyrinth. What started as a cheap, serial and simple can end up as acomplex artificial landscape. When serial is used in a smart way, it can become one of a kind! 6) Horizontal meets vernacular: horizontal modernity has to meet vernacular density, creating a hybrid morphology which can meet both linear nature of traffic infrastructure, such as a terminal with vertical, dense and fragmented nature of public programs, which aim to interpret traditional city typologies, such as a street, square, park… So instead of proposing only a city park on a building’s rooftop, we are proposing a dense „city block“ of city parks, streets, squares and programs, creating an inner city life at the rooftop. This rooftop city collides with the terminal, making a dense „city block“ typology. We aim to create a complex interaction of two cities: passenger''s city vs visitor’s city. 7/Intersect / disjunct / juxtapose: we aim to create city-like tensions between programs: we aim to create a city within a city. 8/We propose densification of a building in order to adjust a scale of a pier to the scale of the traditional city: fragmentation of terminal building is to relate to the traditional scale of the city of Yokohama. 9/Technology of the building is to serve, not dominate. A simple and efficient structural scheme. Low cost and flexible system is more rational and appropriate for the task. 10/We propose a maximum usage of environmental potential to achieve self-sustainable building: NEAR-ZERO BUILDING.

Work title: Real Virtuality

Juror's comment
Appealing speech and representation system, but we have some doubts about how is generating architecture.
or how I imagined working with imaginary friend?!

Work title: InterEmbrace

Juror's comment
This projects starts in a completely opposite way as our proposal, we try to generate the intervention as an extension of the pier ground hosting the terminal functions and hosting a new park for the city. This project is conceived as a formal object on the pier, where different situations occurr.
Our concept for the Osanbashi pier is to architecturally manifest the gesture of welcoming. The shape was inspired by the duality concept of “Niwaminato.” It can be understood as two halves, which start from opposite ends of the pier and move towards one another, intertwining at the center and separating again. These two halves each represent dual aspects of the Osanbashi­­ pier, and the city of Yokohama: local and international, village and cosmopolitan, garden and field. Where the form turns, different vantage points are created, so that users can appreciate multiple views of the city, the sea, and the pier. The triangulated grid produces a comprehensible structure, which allows different degrees of opening or closure uniformly and visible connection between the interior and exterior. The dual forms can also be read as the flows of the two primary user groups as they move through the pier, the visitors coming from the sea and the residents coming from the shore. Where the two forms intersect, the two groups meet to form one collective. Part of welcoming visitors is making it simple for them to orient themselves, therefore, the highly legible form clarifies navigation on the interior, further reinforcing the gesture of welcoming. Just as the interior spaces generate different levels of separation or collectiveness, the gardens, created within the apertures, also have this inherent duality represented through varied levels of viewing and occupying. However, while the form of the building is locked in an everlasting moment of embrace, the different types of gardens present within the building have a unique opportunity to grow and transform as time passes, allowing the viewers experience of the building to change after every visit. The isometric method of representation is inspired by the Edo period of Japanese art. This form of representation has an innate ability to expose and lay bare what is being depicted but also to emphasize a particular view. The side of the pier that is highlighted in the drawings is devoted to serving the citizens of Yokohama. Committed to maintaining the stunning views of the city only small boats are allowed to dock in this pier. By restricting the size of the vessels docking on the pier, the citizens in Yokohama also have a clear view of their pier welcoming its visitors. Our drawings depict the welcome gesture as a series of embraces. In the greater urban context, the city of Yokohama embraces the pier and the pier returns the favor by welcoming the citizen through an unencumbered path to the center of pier. At a more local level, the Osanbashi pier embraces the ships. Large ships like the Queen Elizabeth II act like floating cities, and when the ship docks, it is physically enveloped by the pier, such that the two cities are united. Once the visitors enter the pier, it embraces them. As the visitors move through the interior spaces, the people of Yokohama embrace them. The act of welcome is manifested on urban and individual scales.

Work title: Topological Songlines for Yokohama

Juror's comment
Interesting proposal which does not get into its materialisation.
TOPOLOGICAL SONGLINES FOR YOKOHAMA From originalities to singularities [or how to lose our identity] perverse/pəˈvɜːs/ (lat. perversus). 1. adj. showing a deliberate and obstinate desire to behave unacceptably. [sexually perverted] 2. adj. corrupt with the coherency of a system. 3. against the weight of evidence or the direction of the judge. The role of the architect is perverse. There is a surplus of identity Architecture at the beginning of the XXI Century is a discipline that not just tends to perversity, but isolates itself by the mechanism by which it operates. Those mechanisms are debtors of the self-definition of the architect, the processes of architectural production and the attachment to identity. Modernism radicalism reinforced cultural identity. Which claimed for highlighting supposed origins. Postmodernism just added a factor of multiplications, dispersing our roots, but admitting them. What if we could define a process of transplanting? What if we could define our exodus as a trace by which our roots do not belong to a position but migrate? What if we could produce contemporary culture in a garden of wandering? There is a clear tendency in contemporary architecture to Superoriginality. Instigate by a spirit of distinction. Originality tends to be justified in terms of importation of mechanism from other disciplines. The metaphor is obsolete. The literal translation of conceptual to physical ignores contemporary conditions. It ignores society complexity. Crossed properties between space and time are one of the main cualities of our generation. Time is not anymore appreciated as a catalogue where things are exhibit as in an isotropic space, but a teritory from which we trace our paths. Contemporary culture is not anymore produced by tabulas rasas. The manifestos were over long time ago. As well as postmodernism eclecticism. Contemporary society raise over a Deleuzean multiplicity to reach a complex compendium of systems in which singularities trace paths through culture. The architect paradigm vanishes and the aim is not so much to build objects but to construct society. Therefore it behaves as a semionaut of culture. Exodus from one state to the other is the way to behave. Whereas, contemporary architecture is defined by a migration from originalities to singularities. This project for Yokohama’s International Port Terminal arises as a negotiation to trace trajectories within a territory defined by time, society and space. Therefore protocols of use, politics, daily parliaments, infrastructures and micropolitics are the elements that construct the project. Therefore the proposal is more a map than a plan. It deals more with cartography than with planning, as it proposes the traces from which it constructs. The project itself is a trajectory between different singularities, which are delimited by agents. Hence a map is produced and presented as score music. Because the project it is not definitely settle, but it’s closer to a gathering of songlines which orchestrate the different agents. Moreover, the project escapes from a euclidean consideration of reality and gathers with a branch of mathematics which deals more with qualifications than with quantifications: Topology. Topology as geometry for translations. The project, the map, proposes translations from one singularity to another. Contemporary identity is defined from singularities. The role of the architect as a designer is obsolete. Architects should be a re-programmer. Hence, propose maps of systems that operate with conditions of contemporarity. Do not create. Do not impose. Taking the DJ and the computer programmer as a reference. Those who really are producers of contemporary situations by coherent mechanisms concerning reality. We claim for a retroactive reinterpretation of the ready made as postproduced product, which is characterized by the invention of paths through culture. Generating behaviours and potential reuses. Paradigm of the architect is migrating from design to topological programming. From production to post-production. From the artist and the engineer as prototypes to the DJ and computer programming as types. What if architectural production today could be compared to a collective sport, far from the classical mythology of the solitary effort? What if we lose our identity?

Work title: The Above, The Below and The City: Ferry Terminal for Yokohama, Japan

Juror's comment
Well developed ands skillfully worked out.
Concept: The new proposal is imagined as a piece of urban topography that has been lifted and split into a series of folded layers, in some places it is a read as a piece of extruded groundscape. embedded with functions. In other places it hovers over the portside stretching out into the sea. In some respects in mirrors the range of experiences associated with the travellers it houses both mundane commuter facility and visionary landscape for journeys not yet taken. At its heart is an interest in how this mega structure supports its present function, how it could be adapted and how the fabric itself can be harnessed to support both itself and potentially its wider urban context. Urban Strategy: The buildings urban strategy is to create a continuous inhabitable surface from the existing parks on the main land all the way out onto the pier, this allows Yokohama citizens to enjoy the panoramic views of the city by lifting this civic amenity off the ground, it does not interfere with the functioning of the port terminal itself. The central three columns that support the roof act as more than structure on an urban level they provide the connection between the public parking and the roof top garden via a winding stair inside the roof depth itself, At this point the roof sides are permeable allowing both ferry users and citizens to overlap whilst never touching. Structural Concept. The scheme proposed is highly specific in its form but also highly flexible in its use and potential reuse. The podium which houses the storage and car parking is a series of long span concrete arches with secondary coffer slabs spanning between them, the perimeter box houses all the vertical circulation and itself buttresses the whole construction this leads to flexible use space of 15m clear spans in both directions. The exposed concrete super structure is allowed to absorbed heat from the vehicular activity which is harvested via a network or water filled pipes this supplies all the required heating for the building. above. The building above works as a series of fixed blocks with bridging elements between the structural blocks housing vertical circulation are mean as fixed units while the bridging elements can be changed as time and use requires changes. The main feature of the building is the mega structural roof this is inspired by the ships themselves its is a monocock construction of a number of steel ribs, the surface mesh panels are supported and fixed to this primary skeleton and act as a stress skin on both sides. This allows the roof hover in places with out the need for additional supports. The length of the port terminal has allowed for a large feature cantilever out over the end of the pier this is a welcoming feature to visitors but also shelter for those boarding the domestic and water taxi services at this end of the pier. This construction is hollow which allows it to get embedded with a number of technological features. Environmental Concepts: The building by its nature and scale has a highly energy intensive object to construct and maintain. Thinking how the form of the fabric can be used to passively minimise running costs and how the intensive activity of the buildings function and site might be activated to provide the building with necessary heating and cooling. The roof itself acts as a giant environmental control mechanism. Its surface catches and stores rainwater in the three super columns that run into the basement. These are then circulated around the basement to absorb heat which can be condensed for use as building heating it can also function to actively cool spaces by dumping the heat into the sea beneath the pier within its depth air ducts can supply air to internal spaces these can be cooled by rooting them through the edges of the roof or by heat exchange with the water piping. The water can also be used with in the building for WCs and general usage /cleaning etc. The roof is also meant to act as a garden space for local people to enjoy and inhabit it extends right down into the city to directly connect the existing gardens to the pier as it rises up it is partially planted and partially open allowing an variable and interesting light to fall on those in the terminal. The depth of the structure performs as all the shading the building needs.


Yverdon-les-Bains, 1999
Jurors' Description of the Project

World's Fair pavilions exist to showcase innovation. At the service of corporate, institutional or governmental entities, they typically foreground technological advancements or philanthropic largess. In the best of cases, they address both. Blur had neither and was the result of nothing: no program, no functional requirements, no size definition, no site mandates, no occupancy targets or public flow rates. The program was a series of words and phrases based in the counter culture of the 70s: love, me and the universe, altered states etc.

Similarly, our response was intent on delivering nothing. We gave the site back to itself disguised as architecture. In the 'cafe', visitors could drink the building (and thus the site) in the form of packaged water.  Instead of a media rich, high definition visual environment, upon entering blur, one can see nothing and hear nothing. The sound of the building being perpetually remade through 30,000 high-pressure fog nozzles was dominant. Vision was foregrounded as the paramount sense through its repression.

It is too soon to know whether Blur was a barometer of early 21st Century sentiment or a neutral response to the conditions of the site.  The lack of program allowed us to make our own which had nothing to do with a World's Fair and everything to do with our own practice. It allowed Diller and Scofidio to bridge the worlds of high art, installation art, and architecture, continue to research threads significant to the practice at the same time it presaged the change of the firm name from D+S to DS+R.
by Charles Renfro

Image Courtesy of DS+R

Image Courtesy of DS+R


Photo by Beat Widmer


Pipilotti Rist's , Artistic Director of Expo.01, Matrix of Associations / Expo brief 

Preamble: Association Expo 2001 has been charged by the Confederation with the task of organizing a national exhibition, Expo.01, intended not only as a laboratory for ideas but also a great festival of the imagination and emotion. It is scheduled to take place from 3 May to 29 October 2001 and will be held in western Switzerland at sites in four towns and three lakes. Five cantons are taking part: Bern, Fribourg, Jura, Neuchatel, and Vaud. Expo.01 will be sited on four arteplages (art beaches) located in BienneMoratNeuchatel, and Yverdon-les-Bains. In addition, there will be a floating arteplage for the canton of Jura that roams from lake to lake. The four lakeshore arteplages will consist of an Expopark onshore and a forum on the lake.

A concept bursting with ideas: Expo.01 takes a searching look into the future. What lies ahead for our society, state, and economy in the new millennium? What changes will affect our lives and our environment? These questions will be explored by focusing on a number of juxtapositions: ''Power and Freedom'' at Biel-Bienne, ''Moment and Eternity'' at Murten-Morat, ''Nature and Artificiality'' at Neuchatel, '' I and Universe'' at Yverdon-les-Bains, and ''Meaning and Movement'' at the mobile arteplage of Jura. Within these overall juxtapositions, each arteplage offers matters of concern to our society for years to come.

The infrastructure: Built with the future in mind, Expo.01 aims to leave lasting cultural, social, and economic marks. It whishes to take into account the need for discussion about new ethical and moral standards, a new collective code of conduct, and innovative approaches to spiritual experience. The exhibition brings the visitor into a universe of five worlds, linked by common themes, juxtapositions, associations and questions. Each arteplage constitutes a world in itself, distinct from the others in form and content, character, mood, and color, a sense reinforced by sounds specific to each forum. One common thread is a strong attachment to the water. The corso, a theme trail leading from the railway stations and parking areas to the arteplages, serves to get visitors attuned to the spirit of Expo.01. Awaiting them on arrival are events, an extraordinary selection of foods, and the welcoming embrace of modular hotels. At the heart of each arteplage is the forum, a structure harmoniously blending high-tech design and environmental awareness. This is the focus for experiences far transcending the humdrum routines of everyday life. Here, the topics and themes invite visitors to dream and marvel, and to discuss and experiment. Visitors are transported from one arteplage to another by a fleet of IRIS catamarans.

A festival of the imagination: The project is a collective sculpture that seeks to excite the imagination and generate new ideas. It is intended not only to foreground progress but also to ask questions about quality, consequences, and the meaning of progress.  To this end, it invents stories and explores the realm lying between the normal and the possible with childlike abandon. Expo.01 encourages flights of fancy, multicultural encounters, and experiences of the senses; it displays bold discoveries, amazing interrelationships, and innovative products; it is punctuated by festivals and events. Expo is a platform for new ideas and new technologies that will live on: products will be developed for Expo, launched at Expo, and then go on to conquer world markets. Sharing in the creation of Expo.01 are thinkers from Switzerland and abroad.

Image Courtesy of DS+R



Charles Renfro & Ricardo Scofidio are partners at Diller Scofidio + Renfro, an interdisciplinary studio that integrates architecture, publishing, visual and stage arts. Elizabeth Diller and Ricardo Scofifio founded the studio in 1979, while Charles Renfro joined in 1997 and became a partner in 2004. Their influence stems as much from their contributions to the theory and criticism of architecture as from their built works, that is sometimes expressed in the form of written work, but more often are in the form of installation art, video art or electronic art.

Ricardo Scofidio, RA, attended The Cooper Union School of Architecture and received a Bachelor of Architecture from Columbia University. Mr. Scofidio is Professor Emeritus of Architecture at Cooper Union.
Charles Renfro, RA, attended Rice University and received a Master of Architecture degree from Columbia University. Mr. Renfro has served as visiting professor at Rice and Columbia University.


Work title: The Cloud* as an Archive


Imagine the Cloud as a place on an Archive. Located along the coastline, 450 m structure of the Archive confronts as with an experience of encountering something that we already know. A new point of departure re-organizes and de-composes spatial memory of the Cloud. It brings us to the point where we can study it. Once we are inside we can go into its details, research its fear of the rescue and erasure of the traces. Generating structure of the Cloud is designed as movable machinery which travels along the sectors of the Archive. It is equipped with nozzles producing the Cloud and movable platform on which the Visitors can travel to the level 02 of the structure. Generating machinery moves from sector 01 to 10 with one day interval, constantly producing the Cloud, taking its resources from the lake water. Moving machine intervals allow the Visitors to select specific date and accessible sector from which the exploration of the Cloud begins. Along 450 meters of possible maneuvering along the structure they can perceive different instances of the Cloud. Starting from an instance on level 02 - which is an observatory level where the Cloud is visible only, captured in archival wall – they can decide on going lower, on level 01 of the structure. Walking on level 02 they are not only seeing the Cloud, it is all around them, and it is present and touchable. They can walk on multiple suspended bridges which all soaked in the changeable atmosphere Cloud. There are several of the bridges going to the water level with one walkway. Level 00 states for the Origin of the Cloud. That is where the travel through the Cloud ends, on both ends of the 450 structure.

Work title: Chaahk

OVERVIEW:: If Blur as a material effect has a place, it is at the edges – dissipating them into a manifold continuum. This is as much a problem of geometry – of borders and boundaries, geographical orientation and alignment – as much as it is a problem of cultural norms, political affiliations and ideological positions. It is no wonder then that fog becomes the significant substance of Blur. Blur is complicit with a new mode of consuming, occupying and participating with(in) a site. Material anonymity and material specificity become mobilized against one another producing a brave new state of openness. One might think of Anaximenes’ Aer, an impure mixture of particles that produces a radical blindness enabling war machines to run hotter, see less and sense more amidst its cooling fog of war. Since Blur, the production of nothingness has become both a disciplinary architectural challenge as well as an increasingly recognized geopolitical objective. Prior to 1999, the production of nothingness could be framed as technique without application followed by something of a lost decade due to war, financial collapse and investment into the ether of derivatives. We now find ourselves immersed within avalanches of data with the ability to [im]properly embrace them. Architecture is not exempt from this critique as many virtual projects during that lost decade never made it to materialized application. However, techniques developed during that time have advanced in terms of scale and intensity thus allowing us to reconsider Blur projected at a global scale with precise application and even more intense sensations of nothingness. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION :: Chaahk is an effective tool that enables the systemic augmentation of weather patterns by injecting evaporated sea water into the atmosphere at a massive scale in order to deliver it to targeted on-shore destinations. This is done in partnership with on-shore infrastructure that captures the moisture delivered via weather systems; then distributing it through an otherwise conventional aqueduct system – reclaiming and distributing water gained through melting polar ice caps. SCENARIO :: Weather is no longer a viable system for humanity in its present form. The behavior of weather has been modified to such a degree by industrial forces that our best recourse is an attempt to blur/invert this relationship by using weather to augment the behavior of global Empire. Left unchecked, weather’s mythical violence long correlated with the mere manifestation of the gods threatens global stability and the possibility to sustain ethical standards of living for individuals. Additionally, its intensifying unpredictability poses unacceptable and unsustainable risks to global markets, nation states and multinational corporations. Rising sea levels threaten coastlines while drought rages through once fertile farmlands. Resource scarcity ceases to differentiate between developed and undeveloped countries. Basic Needs becomes the dominant political mantra throughout all social and economic spheres. It becomes evident that if a multi-national regime is to exert any authority within this milieu, it must be able to first and foremost provide access to controlling the weather. Climate radicalization is simply too great a threat to go unclaimed. And with widespread, scientifically supported and cultural acknowledgment of climate change, the population has already attributed this violence to the abject chimera of industrialized multinational weather and the Anthropocene. All that is left is for one (many) to claim sovereign authority over the weather. In a desperate act to preserve global order, multiple undisclosed assemblages of nation states, energy and infrastructure companies, agri-business and privatized security forces implement a series of globally scaled, multi-purpose weather generating systems that provide the promise of smarter weather and a brighter future. While its applications are wide-ranging and indeterminate, its primary function is to manage the distribution of weather systems while combating rising sea levels. Weather is primarily delivered as aid to areas that would otherwise experience severe drought in order to enhance crop yields thus guaranteeing food supply to meet global demand. Weather could also be delivered to cities so that their municipal water needs can be met. Wealthy nation states might continue to outsource their farmland and deliver weather to economically accessible land if domestic territory does not suffice. In short, Chaahk secures weather and Chaahkobs (the collection of competing multinational weather entities) securitize their access.

Work title: Landship

”The great obsession of the nineteenth century was, as we know, history: with its themes of development and of suspension, of crisis, and cycle. (...)We are in the epoch of simultaneity: we are in the epoch of juxtaposition, the epoch of the near and far, of the side-by-side, of the dispersed.” (M. Foucault) The concept of progress makes the future seem like a goal or an accomplishment, which leads to the thought that time is the path to perfection. This idea is based on the premise that the best is yet to come. Future as an accomplice to human initiative seems more and more uncertain. Indeed in the past, the future worried us because we were powerless; today it frightens us because of the consequences of our actions that we have no way to clearly apprehend. We feel helpless confronted with our power. Technique has become one of the main instruments of progress, omnipresent in our society; it has become our environment. This phenomenon distances technique from human control, making him subject to a certain point of determinism. In an imperceptible way, technique has been sacralised. “It is not technique that enslaves us but the sacred transferred to technique” (J. Ellul) The transfer has generated an expansion of thought allowing mechanised time to dominate human reflection time. The acceleration of reality (P.Virilio) inhibits the sensation that time flies, when associated with efficient consumerism, the world is unable to find any form of rest. The idea is not to resist progress but to take a break in order to assimilate it. It is necessary to question the philosophical and political notions concerning progress. What is progress today, on an environmental, economic and political level? It is important to raise awareness of the impact of progress, which leads us to search for clever endings or a limit to things. Landship intends to become a break point, in the visitor’s exponential acceleration of time. Like the Blur building, Landship disappears, one image is missing, the one of the building itself. Anti-image and anti-object. Landship is a remote and isolated object surrounded by water. Built in the way of a boat hull, the structure insures water tightness and its ability to float. The complete absence of urban fabric becomes the context of the project, which differs from the context as much as it is a part of it. Landship is not an object lost in an endless extension of a uniform element as would be an oceanic island. (G.Deleuze), neither is it a “New world” but an alternative critique of the existing world. It is an artifice, part of a larger ensemble: the lakes borders, the continents borders... Unlike Diller and Scofidio’s construction maintained in a constant cloud, Landship has well defined limits. It’s the perimeter that embodies the limit and allows the visitor to experience and play a part in the limited and closed environment. The tangle of borders put the vessel in relation to different scales and different places. It becomes the consecration of utopia, a heterotopia as defined by Michel Foucault: a real place where other spaces are connected around it. This “topia” is defined in contrast with the context through a basic figure that insures the projects’ clarity. The grid is used as the main architectonic structure; its geometry is altered by its relationship with other basic architectural elements that appear to be an exception to the uniform grid. These entities tend to bring environment and architecture together, as the observatory tower brings horizontality and verticality together. It is the garden contained in the center of Landship that becomes a variable to the grid. Apart from romantic contemplation, the garden allows an active relationship with nature. Here, the garden becomes a microcosm, being the smallest plot in the world and at the same time the world in its totality. “Since ancient times, the garden is some kind of successful and universal heterotopia.” (M. Foucault). Through its composition and its combination of limits, Landship appears as speculative fiction with a poetical dimension: a piece of land balanced under the water level by an archaic technique. The simplicity and the architectural abstraction leaves room for interpretation and imagination. Too often imagination has been considered as a secondary force or as a way of evasion. “The importance of imagination on the human psyche has not been emphasized enough. Generally, we tend place reality in first position, but how can Man create if he doesn’t feel what we could call the “possibility function”. To take action we must first imagine” (G. Bachelard).


THE PREHISTORIC PERISCOPE The main idea is to open the point of view of the visitor to the landscape. A new higher point of view like the “god eye” described by Micheal de Certeau. The visitor will experience to live many meters above the lake. His new scale will give him a new perspective of his HABITAT, linking his mind to the universe. This is possible thanks to gigantic periscopes. The main building remind then some dinosaurs or prehistoric animal. It refers to a prehistoric condition of the place where he lives, with an amazing surrealist final effect.